We propose a statistical model applicable to character level language modeling and show that it is a good fit for both, program source code and English text. The model is parameterized by a program from a domain-specific language (DSL) that allows expressing non-trivial data dependencies. Learning is done in two phases: (i) we synthesize a program from the DSL, essentially learning a good representation for the data, and (ii) we learn parameters from the training data – the process is done via counting, as in simple language models such as n-gram. Our experiments show that the precision of our model is comparable to that of neural networks while sharing a number of advantages with n-gram models such as fast query time and the capability to quickly add and remove training data samples. Further, the model is parameterized by a program that can be manually inspected, understood and updated, addressing a major problem of neural networks.


@article{bielik2016program, title={Program synthesis for character level language modeling}, author={Bielik, Pavol and Raychev, Veselin and Vechev, Martin}, year={2016}}